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| OPHTHALMOLOGIST

PATIENT INFORMATION

  • Is a sudden change in vision an emergency?

    Yes. In general it is very important to rule out serious causes of visual impairment because the delay in starting treatment largely determines the difference between the a functional recovery and irreversible consequences. If you have had recent and/or sudden visual disturbances you should request a professional evaluation.

     

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  • Who is at risk for retinal detachment?

    • People over 50 years.
    • People with a family history of retinal detachment.
    • It is generally considered that people with nearsightedness have a higher risk of retinal detachment.
    • Previous retinal detachment in the other eye.
    • People who have had cataract surgery are at increased risk for later developing retinal detachment.
    • Blunt injury or blow to the head.
    • Injury to the eye
    • Diabetes, which can lead to proliferative diabetic retinopathy.
    • Other eye disorders or eye tumors.

     

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  • When should you have an eye exam?

    From the first year of life every child with the accompaniment of the parents, should be evaluated every 6 months to prevent the development of amblyopia.

     

    In general, people over 40 years of age should have an annual check for ophthalmology, as the risk of presenting eye diseases increases.

     

    Diabetic and hypertensive patients should have an ophthalmological evaluation as soon as possible because these conditions predispose to serious visual problems.

     

    A professional assessment is necessary to establish the individual state of vision and eye health.

     

    It is recommend that any adult has a baseline eye examination at age 40, the time when early signs of disease or changes in vision may occur. As screening for diabetes or certain cancers, 40 is a reminder to adults that they should to be aware of their eye health. A baseline screening can help to identify signs of eye disease at an early stage when many treatments can have the greatest impact on preserving vision.

     

    Some people shouldn't wait until they are 40 y/o to have a comprehensive eye exam. If you have an eye disease or if you have a risk factor for developing one, such as diabetes, high blood pressure or a family history of eye disease, you should see an ophthalmologist even if you are younger than 40.

     

    Upon examining your eyes, your ophthalmologist can tell you how often you should undergo an eye exam. As you age, it's especially important that you have your eyes checked regularly because your risk for eye disease increases. If you are 65 or older, make sure you have your eyes checked every year or two for signs of age-related eye diseases such as cataracts, age-related macular degeneration and glaucoma.

     

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  • What Should Be Checked in an Eye Exam?

    A comprehensive eye exam is relatively simple and comfortable and shouldn't take more than 45 to 90 minutes. The exam should include checks on the following:

     

    Your medical history. First, your doctor* will ask you for an assessment of your vision and your overall health. Your family's medical history, whether you wear corrective lenses or whether you are on any medication will also be of interest to your ophthalmologist.

     

    Your visual acuity. This is the part of an eye exam people are probably most familiar with. Your ophthalmologist will ask you to read a standardized eye chart to determine how well you see at various distances. The test is performed on one eye at a time by covering the eye not being tested.

     

    Your pupils. Your doctor may evaluate how your pupils respond to light by shining a bright beam of light through your pupils. Common pupillary reaction to this stimulus is to constrict (become smaller). If your pupils respond by dilating (widening) or there is a lack of response either way, this may indicate an underlying problem.

     

    Your side vision. Loss of side vision is a symptom of glaucoma. Because you may lose side vision without knowing it, this test can identify eye problems that you aren't even aware of.

     

    Your eye movement. This test, called ocular motility, evaluates the movement of your eyes. Your ophthalmologist will want to ensure proper eye alignment and ocular muscle function. Common tests measure the eyes and their ability to move quickly in all directions and slowly track objects.

     

    Your prescription for corrective lenses. You will be seated and asked to view an eye chart through a device called a phoroptor, which contains different lenses. The phoroptor can help determine the best eyeglass or contact lens prescription to correct any refractive error you may have, such as myopia.

     

    Your eye pressure. This test, called tonometry, measures the pressure within your eye (intraocular eye pressure, or IOP). Elevated IOP is a sign of glaucoma. The test may involve a quick puff of air onto the eye, or gently applying a pressure-sensitive tip near or against your eye. Your ophthalmologist may use numbing drops for this test for your comfort.

     

    The front part of your eye. A type of microscope called a slit lamp is used to illuminate the front part of the eye, including the eyelids, cornea, iris and lens. This can reveal whether you are developing cataracts or have any scars or scratches on your cornea.

     

    Your retina and optic nerve. Your ophthalmologist will put drops in your eye to dilate, or widen, your eye. This will allow him or her to thoroughly examine your retina and optic nerve, located at the back of your eye, for signs of damage from disease. Your eyes might be temporarily sensitive to light for a few hours after they are dilated.

     

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  • Why are my eyes burning?

    Acute or chronic disorder of the ocular surface and tear film can cause eye burning. Also some types of infections. Not always using drops solves the problem in the long run, and a detailed plan to establish the cause and give appropriate treatment test is recommended.

     

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  • What is pterygium?

    It is the growth of a reddish tissue in a triangle extending over the cornea.

    The pterygium is associated with chronic sun exposure especially in childhood and adolescence. Pterygium is a growth of fleshy tissue that may start as a pingueculae. It can remain small or grow large enough to cover part of the cornea. When this happens, it can affect your vision.

     

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  • What are cataracts?

    Inside our eyes, we have a natural lens. The lens bends (refracts) light rays that come into the eye to help us see. The lens should be clear, like the top lens in the illustration. If you have a cataract, your lens has become cloudy, like the bottom lens in the illustration. It is like looking through a foggy or dusty car windshield. Things look blurry, hazy or less colorful with a cataract.

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  • How are cataracts treated?

    Cataracts can be removed only with surgery. If your cataract symptoms are not bothering you very much, you don’t have to remove a cataract. You might just need a new eyeglass prescription to help you see better. You should consider surgery when cataracts keep you from doing things you want or need to do.

     

    During cataract surgery, Dr. Parra will remove your eye’s cloudy natural lens and replace it with an artificial lens. This new lens is called an intraocular lens (or IOL).

     

    People who have had cataract surgery may have their vision become hazy again years later. This is usually because the eye’s capsule has become cloudy. The capsule is the part of your eye that holds the IOL in place. Your ophthalmologist can use a laser to open the cloudy capsule and restore clear vision. This is called a capsulotomy.

     

    Cataracts are a very common reason people lose vision, but they can be treated. You and your ophthalmologist should discuss your cataract symptoms. Together you can decide whether you are ready for cataract surgery.

    Let us help you protect your vision. To learn more or request an appointment please contact us at

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  • What is glaucoma?

    Glaucoma is a group of eye diseases which result in damage to the optic nerve and vision loss. The most common type is open-angle glaucoma. Less common types include closed-angle glaucoma and normal-tension glaucoma. Open-angle glaucoma develops slowly over time and there is no pain. Side vision may begin to decrease followed by central vision resulting in blindness if not treated. Closed-angle glaucoma can present gradually or suddenly. The sudden presentation may involve severe eye pain, blurred vision, mid-dilated pupil, redness of the eye, and nausea. Vision loss from glaucoma, once it has occurred, is permanent.

     

    Risk factors for glaucoma include increased pressure in the eye, a family history of the condition, migraines, high blood pressure, and obesity. If treated early it is possible to slow or stop the progression of disease with medication, laser treatment, or surgery. The goal of these treatments is to decrease eye pressure. A number of different classes of glaucoma medication are available. Laser treatments may be effective in both open-angle and closed-angle glaucoma. A number of types of glaucoma surgeries may be used in people who do not respond sufficiently to other measures. Treatment of closed-angle glaucoma is a medical emergency.

     

    About 6 to 67 million people have glaucoma globally. It occurs more commonly among older people. Closed-angle glaucoma is more common in women. Glaucoma has been called the "silent thief of sight" because the loss of vision usually occurs slowly over a long period of time. Worldwide, glaucoma is the second-leading cause of blindness after cataracts.

     

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  • How is glaucoma treated and managed?

    The modern goals of glaucoma management are to avoid glaucomatous damage and nerve damage, and preserve visual field and total quality of life for patients, with minimal side effects. This requires appropriate diagnostic techniques and follow-up examinations, and judicious selection of treatments for the individual patient. Although intraocular pressure is only one of the major risk factors for glaucoma, lowering it via various pharmaceuticals and/or surgical techniques is currently the mainstay of glaucoma treatment.

     

    Vascular flow and neurodegenerative theories of glaucomatous optic neuropathy have prompted studies on various neuroprotective therapeutic strategies, including nutritional compounds, some of which may be regarded by clinicians as safe for use now, while others are on trial.

     

    Let us help you protect your vision. To learn more or request an appointment please contact us at

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  • What is presbyopia?

    Presbyopia is a condition associated with aging of the eye that results in progressively worsening ability to focus clearly on close objects. Symptoms include difficulty reading small print, having to hold reading material farther away, headaches, and eyestrain. Different people will have different degrees of problems. Other types of refractive errors may exist at the same time as presbyopia.

     

    Presbyopia is a natural part of the aging process. It is due to hardening of the lens of the eye causing the eye to focus light behind rather than on the retina when looking at close objects. It is a type of refractive error along with nearsightedness, farsightedness, and astigmatism. Diagnosis is by an eye examination.

     

    Treatment is typically with eye glasses. The eyeglasses used have higher focusing power in the lower portion of the lens. Off the shelf reading glasses may be sufficient for some.

     

    People over 35 are at risk for developing presbyopia and all people become affected to some degree.

     

    Let us help you protect your vision. To learn more or request an appointment please contact us at

    +57 317-668-9799 or click Request Appointment

     

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+57 317-770-0000 (Office)

INSTITUTO OFTALMOLÓGICO DE CALDAS

Calle 54, 23-140

Manizales, 170004 , CO

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